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ICT FINAL PAPER

The Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class

a. Introduction

Today whiteboard becomes the main part of the teaching and learning process. According to Glover & Miller (2001) states that there are three levels of whiteboard use: first is to increase efficiency, enabling teachers to draw upon a variety of ICT-based resources without disruption or loss of pace. Second is to extend learning, using more engaging materials to explain concepts. The last is to transform learning, creating new learning styles stimulated by interaction with the whiteboard.

In the past time, we, as the teacher, used to use the blackboard for helping us during the teaching and learning process. However, nowadays, the use of blackboard itself is not sophisticated anymore because blackboard is not only old-fashioned but also not good for our health. The dust of the chalks could endanger our health if we heal it again and again. So, time passed by, the blackboard left behind, and the use of whiteboard has been being applied continued for many years, but time by time, the whiteboard itself could endanger our health too because when we want to use the whiteboard, it means that we must work with the board markers which have the chemical unfriendly smelling when we open the cap. Because of those reasons, many teachers have already changed their whiteboard to the interactive whiteboard which is more sophisticated, useful and healthy to help and assist them during the class. That’s why I choose this topic to be written in my ICT final paper; I examine the advantages and the disadvantages of the using of the interactive whiteboard to enhance the grammar learning during the class.

b. The Interactive Whiteboard

According to Stephen Brown (2003) states that there are two very different kinds of interactive whiteboards: The first is a “virtual” electronic version of a dry-wipe board on a computer, that enables learners in a virtual classroom to view what an instructor, presenter, or fellow learner writes or draws. It is also called an electronic whiteboard and can be found in conferencing and data sharing systems such as Microsoft NetMeeting. The second type is a large physical display panel that can function as an ordinary whiteboard, a projector screen, an electronic copy board or as a computer projector screen on which the computer image can be controlled by touching or writing on the surface of the panel instead of using a mouse or keyboard. Meanwhile another expert Michael Harris (2003) stated that an interactive whiteboard is a large, touch-sensitive board which is connected to a digital projector and a computer.The projector displays the image from the computer screen on the board.The computer can then be controlled by touching the board, either directly or with a special pen.

Based on two experts above, I believe that the utilization of the interactive whiteboard is really interesting to be applied in the teaching and learning process. This remarkable whiteboard is more attractive and modern to be used during the class. Raúl Gastón (2005) also stated that the interactive whiteboard is a presentation tool like no other. It is a whiteboard that is touch sensitive. A projector, computer, DVD, VCR, and other devices are connected to it. The instructor can then control everything from the front of the room. The sky is the limit when it comes to powerful presentations. Instructors can display a PowerPoint presentation, use their finger as a mouse and close the presentation to open a video or get on the Internet or a host of many other activities. The whiteboard also comes with a tray with virtual pens and eraser. These pens can be configured to any color or width. When a pen is used on the whiteboard, it displays virtual ink that is feed through the computer to the projector. The teacher and students can then write notes and pictures for a lesson. The software that is available with the whiteboard can then take the virtual writing and transform them to printed text. The entire lesson can be printed, saved, loaded online, e-mailed, and a host of other ways to share the information with students.

c. The Application Of The Interactive Whiteboard

The application of the interactive whiteboard is much better that the old-fashion one because it is really easy to be used, and we do not have to find any eraser to omit the written text that we wrote on it. We just have to find the mouse or even touch it whenever we want to. According to Stephen Brown (2003) states about how they are being used and how they can be used. The interactive whiteboards are being used in schools and Colleges, and the main reasons why interactive whitebroads can be used are as follows:

  • Write over the top of programmes to highlight and annotate points.
  • View and navigate the Internet from the whiteboard. Surf and display websites that the entire room will be able to see in a teacher-directed manner.
  • Allow staff and/or students to move around a screen without the use of a computer because the screen itself is sensitive.
  • Offer the same features as a traditional whiteboard such as writing directly on the board, circling things, highlighting or labelling elements on the screen, and erasing errors but able to save or print out the results without further ad.

Furthermore, typically interactive whiteboards are used in lecture or classroom environments and the technology allows you to write or draw on the surface, print the image off, save it to computer, or distribute it over a network. You can also project a computer screen image onto the surface and then either control the application by touching the board directly or by using a special pen. The computer image can be annotated or drawn over and the annotations saved to disc or emailed to others.  Fully functioning interactive whiteboards usually comprise four components: a computer, a projector, appropriate software and the display panel. The computer is connected to the projector and whiteboard. The projector displays the computer screen image onto the board. Action on the surface of the display panel is communicated with the computer over a cable or wireless connection and interpreted via the installed software. Display panels can be either front or back projection. Additional components are available for some systems including hand held key pads for gathering individual responses and interactive white board tablets: in effect a small personal version of the larger board.

According to Céline Deroy (2000) stated that the application of the interactive whiteboard during the class with the students was so effective, and it could t motivate the students because the students were very excited and really got involved with enthusiasm, they all wanted to touch the board. Students thought it was “cool”. When students were spoken to they all enjoyed the lessons and said they had been motivated.
This interactive whiteboard also really has the magic influence to catch the students’ interest to learn and enhance grammar. This remarkable whiteboard can provide many kinds of grammar lessons more colorful than common whiteboard. Moreover, this interactive whiteboard is much bigger than the old-fashioned whiteboard; that’s why it is not only the students who are so being motivated with this stuff but also the teachers who are really get enough help when teaching and learning process. For the teachers, we just have to click or even touch the screen instead of using eraser when we want to go to the next lessons without being exhausted.
d. The Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class

There are so many experts explanation about this chapter, but I have chosen several statements and according to Stephen Brown (2003) stated that the disadvantages and the advantages of the interactive whiteboard are:

The Advantages Of IWB

  • Interactive whiteboards are more expensive than conventional whiteboards or projector and screen combinations.
  • Their surface can become damaged, necessitating expensive replacement.
  • Front projection boards can be obscured by one or more users.
  • Fixed-height boards are often mounted too high for users to reach the top of or too low to be readily visible by all users.
  • Free-standing boards (and their associated projectors) are more difficult to secure and need to be realigned every time they are moved.
  • If multiple data entry is allowed, inputs can get jumbled, resulting in on-screen gibberish.
  • If remote access is allowed, some users may be tempted to send disruptive comments or drawings to the screen.

The Advantages Of IWB

  • Because interactive whiteboards are so like conventional whiteboards, they can help even technophobic teachers to use thismedium with ease for presentations from the front of the room.
  • They help in broadening the use of e-learning because they rapidly demonstrate the potential of alternative modes of delivery.
  • They make it easy for teachers to enhance presentation content by easily integrating awide range of material into a lesson, suchas a picture from the internet, a graph from a spreadsheet or text from a Microsoft Wordfile, in addition to student and teacher annotations on these objects.
  • They allow teachers to create easily and rapidly customised learning objects from arange of existing content and to adapt it tothe needs of the class in real time.
  • They allow learners to absorb informationmore easily.
  • They allow learners to participate in group discussions by freeing them from note-taking.
  • They allow learners to work collaboratively around a shared task or work area.
  • When fully integrated into a VLE (virtuallearning environment) and learning object repository there is potential for widespreadsharing of resources.
  • When used for interactive testing of understanding for the entire class, they can rapidly provide learner feedback.

According to Raúl Gastón (2005) stated that the Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class is not only for students but also for the teachers too.echLearn Briefing

The Benefits

There are some clear and some unexpected advantages for the students and the teacher that uses an interactive whiteboard. Some of these advantages were very interesting to me. I felt that looking at them as advantages to the students and advantages to the teacher would help me to see how the benefits would impact both involved in the classroom setting. This would also help me to determine some of the best practices to use in my classroom later. Although I split these two areas, there is also an overlap between them. What was is an advantage for students may very well be as beneficial to the teachers.

The Advantages for the students

Students respond very well to the board, it accommodates many learning styles, it can be adapted to many age groups, it can accommodate students with limited motor skills, and it’s interactive (Bell 2002). The use of colors attracts students’ attention to the board and the presentation. A colorful presentation brings in the visual learners and helps others see the information in a new way. Different learning styles are accommodated as the board is a tool that you can see, touch, and sometimes hear. Several senses are involved in the lesson. Students’ age does not limit the whiteboard. From young children to adults, it is a very user-friendly tool that all can use. Students that have special needs can become engaged with the board. Limited mobility, LD, and other special situations can have an impact on how kids work with the material. As Mary Ann Bell (2002) put it , “the board is a kid magnet” due to its high interactivity. Kids can brainstorm and input information at the board or at the keyboard.

Advantages for the teacher

All of the advantages for students can be huge advantages for the teacher as well. There are other advantages for the teachers that are interesting to look at. Teachers reported that the board was easy to use, kept the class together and focused, and made lessons clear and dynamic (Smith 2000). In addition, the board lessons helped absent students catch up, lessons became more highly motivating, lessons were more organized, and behavioral issues were diminished while the board was in use (Adrian 2004). The advantages gained from the use of the board are wonderful. The potential to share your lessons with others outside of the classroom is a powerful concept. As teachers create, save, post, and share lessons a library of knowledge can be created to tap into by peers and students for future use.

It works very well with other peripherals and across subject mater (Bell 2002). A science teacher can use a document/microscope camera, photo, or graphic and label scientific terms over the image. An English teacher can display writing that needs to be edited and group of students can brainstorm and edit material on the board then save it for future use. ESL and second language teachers can get students actively involved in vocabulary, sentence structures, and cultural norms of the target language. The history teacher can display maps, pictures, and videos of places from across time and space to engage students’ attention. The potential for teachers is great and the uses of the board in the classroom are infinite.

Resources for electronic whiteboards are abundant on the internet. There are many groups set up for users of the various types of electronic whiteboards. Lessons can be downloaded and used by teachers from all subjects and grade level. Links to various websites that take advantage of the whiteboard capabilities are shared on these sites as well.

The Drawbacks

As with everything in life there are disadvantages. The interactive whiteboard is no exception to this. Although some of these drawbacks do not prevent most educators from using the system, it should be something to consider. As with any tool a comparison of the advantages versus the disadvantages will validate the use of it or the rational for not using the tool.

Disadvantages for the students

Although reports have been made of the higher motivational increase on students, it is unclear if this effect wears off after familiarity sets in (Smith 2000). There are no studies or research to show if students lose that high interest gained from using the board. Do students lose interest and motivation after the board becomes a “normal” part of the classroom setting? Does the use of the board keep their attention for a large part of the school year? These are questions that need to be answered if the system is to be a valid instructional tool in the classroom. Not having good research on students’ long term learning with the board will possibly hinder its potential use in some school districts.

Ø  Disadvantages for the teacher

Teachers’ disadvantages were mostly with the setup of the board. Issues with too many wires, PC friendly not Mac friendly, and setup time in the classroom were some of the issues (Adrian 2004). If the set-up is a mobile one, so that teachers can share the resource, the wires can be a physical and hazard problem. It seems that the electrical and data wires that needed to go to all the different components created a large amount of wire clutter that was hard to ignore. The wires also presented a problem for Mac users as adapters were needed, since the whiteboard is designed for the PC, creating additional clutter. It also took some time and classroom space to roll in the large board and projector to then hook up all the components.

Another problem reported was technical. There were problems with frequent recalibrations of the system (Smith 2000). The board is very lightweight so if it is bumped or moved the accuracy of the board then falters and is inaccurate. The distance between the projector and the board is also very delicate. If the projector is moved in any direction, the board is not accurate. There was also the issue of casting a shadow on the board from students and teachers while using the board. Users had to adjust to using the board at a slight angle to reduce the amount of shadow interference.

Although all of these problems are valid, Anna Smith’s (2000) recommendation is to have a permanent set-up instead of a mobile one. A ceiling mounted projector, wireless Internet, PC/Mac in a cabinet, and the whiteboard mounted to the wall would solve most of the problems. Wires can be fed through the ceiling and walls. The distance between the projector and the board would be permanent. The shadow problems would still exist, but would diminish from the projector casting down an image instead of table height. This limits the availability of the system to move from room to room, but the system can still be shared as a resource room or by having teachers switch classrooms and special dates.

e. The Summary and The Recommendation

The Interactive Whiteboard is a very powerful tool for the teacher, the students, and the class environment. It is without a doubt a wonderful way to engage students into the lessons. The high color, organization, and flexibility of the board will create advantages for all involved in the classroom. The disadvantages focus mostly on the actual setup and financial limitations of the school to dedicate a permanent room instead of a mobile unit.

We, as the teachers, must be accustomed to this magical whiteboard, and I do believe that if every school and college – students and teachers – has already used and applied this fantastic whiteboard in teaching and learning process, they can improve their result of teaching and learning materials optimally.

References

Adrian B.F. 2004 Incorporating the SMART Board for Smart Teaching. techlearning.com. Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://www.techlearning.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=51200657

Bell, M.A. 2002. Why Use an Interactive Whiteboard? A Baker’s Dozen Reasons! teachers.net. Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://teachers.net/gazette/JAN02/mabell.html

Smith, A. 2000. Interactive Whiteboard Evaluation. Miranda Net Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://www.mirandanet.ac.uk/pubs/smartboard.htm

BELL, M. A. 2002.Why use an interactive whiteboard? A baker’s dozen reasons!Teachers.Net Gazette, 3 (1), January 2002.http://teachers.net/gazette/JAN02/mabell.html (Accessed 16 February 2010).

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ICT FINAL EXAMINATION PAPER

The Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class

a. Introduction

Today whiteboard becomes the main part of the teaching and learning process. According to Glover & Miller (2001) states that there are three levels of whiteboard use: first is to increase efficiency, enabling teachers to draw upon a variety of ICT-based resources without disruption or loss of pace. Second is to extend learning, using more engaging materials to explain concepts. The last is to transform learning, creating new learning styles stimulated by interaction with the whiteboard.

In the past time, we, as the teacher, used to use the blackboard for helping us during the teaching and learning process. However, nowadays, the use of blackboard itself is not sophisticated anymore because blackboard is not only old-fashioned but also not good for our health. The dust of the chalks could endanger our health if we heal it again and again. So, time passed by, the blackboard left behind, and the use of whiteboard has been being applied continued for many years, but time by time, the whiteboard itself could endanger our health too because when we want to use the whiteboard, it means that we must work with the board markers which have the chemical unfriendly smelling when we open the cap. Because of those reasons, many teachers have already changed their whiteboard to the interactive whiteboard which is more sophisticated, useful and healthy to help and assist them during the class. That’s why I choose this topic to be written in my ICT final paper; I examine the advantages and the disadvantages of the using of the interactive whiteboard to enhance the grammar learning during the class.

b. The Interactive Whiteboard

According to Stephen Brown (2003) states that there are two very different kinds of interactive whiteboards: The first is a “virtual” electronic version of a dry-wipe board on a computer, that enables learners in a virtual classroom to view what an instructor, presenter, or fellow learner writes or draws. It is also called an electronic whiteboard and can be found in conferencing and data sharing systems such as Microsoft NetMeeting. The second type is a large physical display panel that can function as an ordinary whiteboard, a projector screen, an electronic copy board or as a computer projector screen on which the computer image can be controlled by touching or writing on the surface of the panel instead of using a mouse or keyboard. Meanwhile another expert Michael Harris (2003) stated that an interactive whiteboard is a large, touch-sensitive board which is connected to a digital projector and a computer.The projector displays the image from the computer screen on the board.The computer can then be controlled by touching the board, either directly or with a special pen.

Based on two experts above, I believe that the utilization of the interactive whiteboard is really interesting to be applied in the teaching and learning process. This remarkable whiteboard is more attractive and modern to be used during the class. Raúl Gastón (2005) also stated that the interactive whiteboard is a presentation tool like no other. It is a whiteboard that is touch sensitive. A projector, computer, DVD, VCR, and other devices are connected to it. The instructor can then control everything from the front of the room. The sky is the limit when it comes to powerful presentations. Instructors can display a PowerPoint presentation, use their finger as a mouse and close the presentation to open a video or get on the Internet or a host of many other activities. The whiteboard also comes with a tray with virtual pens and eraser. These pens can be configured to any color or width. When a pen is used on the whiteboard, it displays virtual ink that is feed through the computer to the projector. The teacher and students can then write notes and pictures for a lesson. The software that is available with the whiteboard can then take the virtual writing and transform them to printed text. The entire lesson can be printed, saved, loaded online, e-mailed, and a host of other ways to share the information with students.

c. The Application Of The Interactive Whiteboard

The application of the interactive whiteboard is much better that the old-fashion one because it is really easy to be used, and we do not have to find any eraser to omit the written text that we wrote on it. We just have to find the mouse or even touch it whenever we want to. According to Stephen Brown (2003) states about how they are being used and how they can be used. The interactive whiteboards are being used in schools and Colleges, and the main reasons why interactive whitebroads can be used are as follows:

  • Write over the top of programmes to highlight and annotate points.
  • View and navigate the Internet from the whiteboard. Surf and display websites that the entire room will be able to see in a teacher-directed manner.
  • Allow staff and/or students to move around a screen without the use of a computer because the screen itself is sensitive.
  • Offer the same features as a traditional whiteboard such as writing directly on the board, circling things, highlighting or labelling elements on the screen, and erasing errors but able to save or print out the results without further ad.

Furthermore, typically interactive whiteboards are used in lecture or classroom environments and the technology allows you to write or draw on the surface, print the image off, save it to computer, or distribute it over a network. You can also project a computer screen image onto the surface and then either control the application by touching the board directly or by using a special pen. The computer image can be annotated or drawn over and the annotations saved to disc or emailed to others.  Fully functioning interactive whiteboards usually comprise four components: a computer, a projector, appropriate software and the display panel. The computer is connected to the projector and whiteboard. The projector displays the computer screen image onto the board. Action on the surface of the display panel is communicated with the computer over a cable or wireless connection and interpreted via the installed software. Display panels can be either front or back projection. Additional components are available for some systems including hand held key pads for gathering individual responses and interactive white board tablets: in effect a small personal version of the larger board.

According to Céline Deroy (2000) stated that the application of the interactive whiteboard during the class with the students was so effective, and it could t motivate the students because the students were very excited and really got involved with enthusiasm, they all wanted to touch the board. Students thought it was “cool”. When students were spoken to they all enjoyed the lessons and said they had been motivated.
This interactive whiteboard also really has the magic influence to catch the students’ interest to learn and enhance grammar. This remarkable whiteboard can provide many kinds of grammar lessons more colorful than common whiteboard. Moreover, this interactive whiteboard is much bigger than the old-fashioned whiteboard; that’s why it is not only the students who are so being motivated with this stuff but also the teachers who are really get enough help when teaching and learning process. For the teachers, we just have to click or even touch the screen instead of using eraser when we want to go to the next lessons without being exhausted.
d. The Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class

There are so many experts explanation about this chapter, but I have chosen several statements and according to Stephen Brown (2003) stated that the disadvantages and the advantages of the interactive whiteboard are:

The Advantages Of IWB

  • Interactive whiteboards are more expensive than conventional whiteboards or projector and screen combinations.
  • Their surface can become damaged, necessitating expensive replacement.
  • Front projection boards can be obscured by one or more users.
  • Fixed-height boards are often mounted too high for users to reach the top of or too low to be readily visible by all users.
  • Free-standing boards (and their associated projectors) are more difficult to secure and need to be realigned every time they are moved.
  • If multiple data entry is allowed, inputs can get jumbled, resulting in on-screen gibberish.
  • If remote access is allowed, some users may be tempted to send disruptive comments or drawings to the screen.

The Advantages Of IWB

  • Because interactive whiteboards are so like conventional whiteboards, they can help even technophobic teachers to use thismedium with ease for presentations from the front of the room.
  • They help in broadening the use of e-learning because they rapidly demonstrate the potential of alternative modes of delivery.
  • They make it easy for teachers to enhance presentation content by easily integrating awide range of material into a lesson, suchas a picture from the internet, a graph from a spreadsheet or text from a Microsoft Wordfile, in addition to student and teacher annotations on these objects.
  • They allow teachers to create easily and rapidly customised learning objects from arange of existing content and to adapt it tothe needs of the class in real time.
  • They allow learners to absorb informationmore easily.
  • They allow learners to participate in group discussions by freeing them from note-taking.
  • They allow learners to work collaboratively around a shared task or work area.
  • When fully integrated into a VLE (virtuallearning environment) and learning object repository there is potential for widespreadsharing of resources.
  • When used for interactive testing of understanding for the entire class, they can rapidly provide learner feedback.

According to Raúl Gastón (2005) stated that the Advantages And The Disadvantages Of The Using Of The Interactive Whiteboard To Enhance The Grammar Learning During The Class is not only for students but also for the teachers too.echLearn Briefing

The Benefits

There are some clear and some unexpected advantages for the students and the teacher that uses an interactive whiteboard. Some of these advantages were very interesting to me. I felt that looking at them as advantages to the students and advantages to the teacher would help me to see how the benefits would impact both involved in the classroom setting. This would also help me to determine some of the best practices to use in my classroom later. Although I split these two areas, there is also an overlap between them. What was is an advantage for students may very well be as beneficial to the teachers.

The Advantages for the students

Students respond very well to the board, it accommodates many learning styles, it can be adapted to many age groups, it can accommodate students with limited motor skills, and it’s interactive (Bell 2002). The use of colors attracts students’ attention to the board and the presentation. A colorful presentation brings in the visual learners and helps others see the information in a new way. Different learning styles are accommodated as the board is a tool that you can see, touch, and sometimes hear. Several senses are involved in the lesson. Students’ age does not limit the whiteboard. From young children to adults, it is a very user-friendly tool that all can use. Students that have special needs can become engaged with the board. Limited mobility, LD, and other special situations can have an impact on how kids work with the material. As Mary Ann Bell (2002) put it , “the board is a kid magnet” due to its high interactivity. Kids can brainstorm and input information at the board or at the keyboard.

Advantages for the teacher

All of the advantages for students can be huge advantages for the teacher as well. There are other advantages for the teachers that are interesting to look at. Teachers reported that the board was easy to use, kept the class together and focused, and made lessons clear and dynamic (Smith 2000). In addition, the board lessons helped absent students catch up, lessons became more highly motivating, lessons were more organized, and behavioral issues were diminished while the board was in use (Adrian 2004). The advantages gained from the use of the board are wonderful. The potential to share your lessons with others outside of the classroom is a powerful concept. As teachers create, save, post, and share lessons a library of knowledge can be created to tap into by peers and students for future use.

It works very well with other peripherals and across subject mater (Bell 2002). A science teacher can use a document/microscope camera, photo, or graphic and label scientific terms over the image. An English teacher can display writing that needs to be edited and group of students can brainstorm and edit material on the board then save it for future use. ESL and second language teachers can get students actively involved in vocabulary, sentence structures, and cultural norms of the target language. The history teacher can display maps, pictures, and videos of places from across time and space to engage students’ attention. The potential for teachers is great and the uses of the board in the classroom are infinite.

Resources for electronic whiteboards are abundant on the internet. There are many groups set up for users of the various types of electronic whiteboards. Lessons can be downloaded and used by teachers from all subjects and grade level. Links to various websites that take advantage of the whiteboard capabilities are shared on these sites as well.

The Drawbacks

As with everything in life there are disadvantages. The interactive whiteboard is no exception to this. Although some of these drawbacks do not prevent most educators from using the system, it should be something to consider. As with any tool a comparison of the advantages versus the disadvantages will validate the use of it or the rational for not using the tool.

Disadvantages for the students

Although reports have been made of the higher motivational increase on students, it is unclear if this effect wears off after familiarity sets in (Smith 2000). There are no studies or research to show if students lose that high interest gained from using the board. Do students lose interest and motivation after the board becomes a “normal” part of the classroom setting? Does the use of the board keep their attention for a large part of the school year? These are questions that need to be answered if the system is to be a valid instructional tool in the classroom. Not having good research on students’ long term learning with the board will possibly hinder its potential use in some school districts.

Disadvantages for the teacher

Teachers’ disadvantages were mostly with the setup of the board. Issues with too many wires, PC friendly not Mac friendly, and setup time in the classroom were some of the issues (Adrian 2004). If the set-up is a mobile one, so that teachers can share the resource, the wires can be a physical and hazard problem. It seems that the electrical and data wires that needed to go to all the different components created a large amount of wire clutter that was hard to ignore. The wires also presented a problem for Mac users as adapters were needed, since the whiteboard is designed for the PC, creating additional clutter. It also took some time and classroom space to roll in the large board and projector to then hook up all the components.

Another problem reported was technical. There were problems with frequent recalibrations of the system (Smith 2000). The board is very lightweight so if it is bumped or moved the accuracy of the board then falters and is inaccurate. The distance between the projector and the board is also very delicate. If the projector is moved in any direction, the board is not accurate. There was also the issue of casting a shadow on the board from students and teachers while using the board. Users had to adjust to using the board at a slight angle to reduce the amount of shadow interference.

Although all of these problems are valid, Anna Smith’s (2000) recommendation is to have a permanent set-up instead of a mobile one. A ceiling mounted projector, wireless Internet, PC/Mac in a cabinet, and the whiteboard mounted to the wall would solve most of the problems. Wires can be fed through the ceiling and walls. The distance between the projector and the board would be permanent. The shadow problems would still exist, but would diminish from the projector casting down an image instead of table height. This limits the availability of the system to move from room to room, but the system can still be shared as a resource room or by having teachers switch classrooms and special dates.

  1. e. The Summary and The Recommendation

The Interactive Whiteboard is a very powerful tool for the teacher, the students, and the class environment. It is without a doubt a wonderful way to engage students into the lessons. The high color, organization, and flexibility of the board will create advantages for all involved in the classroom. The disadvantages focus mostly on the actual setup and financial limitations of the school to dedicate a permanent room instead of a mobile unit.

We, as the teachers, must be accustomed to this magical whiteboard, and I do believe that if every school and college – students and teachers – has already used and applied this fantastic whiteboard in teaching and learning process, they can improve their result of teaching and learning materials optimally.

References

Adrian B.F. 2004 Incorporating the SMART Board for Smart Teaching. techlearning.com. Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://www.techlearning.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=51200657

Bell, M.A. 2002. Why Use an Interactive Whiteboard? A Baker’s Dozen Reasons! teachers.net. Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://teachers.net/gazette/JAN02/mabell.html

Smith, A. 2000. Interactive Whiteboard Evaluation. Miranda Net Retrieved July 28,2005. Website: http://www.mirandanet.ac.uk/pubs/smartboard.htm

BELL, M. A. 2002.Why use an interactive whiteboard? A baker’s dozen reasons!Teachers.Net Gazette, 3 (1), January 2002.http://teachers.net/gazette/JAN02/mabell.html (Accessed 16 February 2010).

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ICT CDs Tasks

Analyzing CDs of CALL

A. Introduction

Nowadays, as we know, computer becomes the part of our daily life and the development of the computer has been continued all the time. The using of computer is not only in the office field but also in the educational field. Now, teachers have to understand and master the computer, and teachers must use the computer to help them in teaching their lesson materials. We call this using of computer in teaching – learning process with CALL (computer assisted language learning). The most important thing that we must remember is that computer is more interactive tools and sophisticated than the others media, such as tape recorders, film projectors, white boards, black boards, board markers and chalks.

The task three of ICT course now  is analyzing the four CALL CDs to figure out the CDs of the five basic principles of CALL program, and those five are:

  1. Interactivity (Feedback and Instruction)

Interactivity refers to how the program can stimulate interaction, especially interaction between the computer and the user. It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback provided in the program.

  1. Usability (Flexibility)

Usability (Flexibility) refers to the flexibility, ease, inherent interest of the program used, and how easy it is to navigate within the program.

  1. Content Appropriateness

Content Appropriateness is concerned with the amount of material presented in the program, how easily the material is learned and understood, and how far the material meets the students need.

  1. Effectiveness

Effectiveness refers to how effectively the program assists the language learners to improve their mastery of grammar.

  1. Performance (Attractiveness)

Performance refers to the presentation, layout of the screen, the color, and the illustrations (picture, diagram, charts, etc.) used in the program.

  1. B. RESULTS

  • Based on my own analzing, the four cds have their own results, and the results are below :

CD 1. English Word

1. Interactivity

(Feedback& Instruction)

The Students must be accompanied by the teachers in order to know how to operate the program because some parts of the information are too hard to be understood by themselves.
2. Usability (Flexibility) All of the materials program are good and easy to do.
3. Content Appropriateness The contents can be used by the elemantary students.
4. Effectiveness It is quite effective to be learned.
5. Performance (Attractiveness) Shapes and colors are attractive and interesting. Music sound is quite enough for stimulating the students’ interets.
Conclusion It can be learned by the elementary students, grade 1 – 4.

CD 2. Vocabulary

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The instructions are clear, good  and helpfull.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are easy to be navigated and followed.
3 Content Appropriateness The content can be used and be learned for the basic students in the fourth grades.
4 Effectiveness The program is very effective and attractive to the students and the level is easy to be chosen to based on their own abilities.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The animation colors and music are attractive and interesting.
Conclusion It can be acceptable for the elemantary students of grade 4 – 6.

CD 3. Learn English “Beginners”

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The CD program is good package for the beginner students.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The CD program really helps the students to increase their english abilities.
3 Content Appropriateness The content helps the students to learn English from the beginning.
4 Effectiveness It is very effective because it provides the great native speakers and the real models of the lesson itself.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The performance of the CD program include pictures and colors is so attractive and interesting to be followed.
Conclusion It is good for the primary students of grade 6 and the junior high school of the first grade.

CD 4. Speak English Intermediate

1 Interactivity

(Feedback & Instruction)

The program provides the communicative activity that can stimulate the students to get active in the situations.
2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are easy to be done and clear enough.
3 Content Appropriateness The content really helps the students in practicing their speaking skills.
4 Effectiveness The CD program is very effective and it can stimulate the brain much.
5 Performance (Attractiveness) The performance is remarkable, great, and really good.
Conclusion It is quite good for junior high school students of the second and third grades.

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Midterm Paper

Teaching and Learning English Grammar Using The CALL Program

a. The utilization of computer in teaching and learning English grammar

Nowadays, as we know, computer becomes the part of our daily life and the development of the computer has been continued all the time. The utilization of computer is not only in the office field but also in the educational field. Now, teachers have to understand and master the computer, and teachers must use the computer to help them in teaching their lesson materials. We call this utilization of computer in teaching – learning process with CALL (computer assisted language learning). The most important thing that we must remember is that computer is more interactive tools and sophisticated than the others media, such as tape recorders, film projectors, white boards, black boards, board markers and chalks. According to Nelson (et al, 1976) states, “The unique property of the computer as a medium for education is its ability to interact with the student. Books and recordings can tell a student what the rules are and what the right solutions are, but they cannot analyze the specific mistakes the students has made and react in a manner which leads him not only correct solution.”

In other words we can say that the computer may become as the teacher or the tutor. It can provide automatically, the lesson materials, the guidelines of how to learn the lesson materials for the students, and can give the more fascinating information and explanations. Another significant of the utilization of the computer in teaching and learning process is that it can be a very effective and efficient reference book, and it can also be used to communicate visually with the students. According to Kenning  (et al, 1976) states, “Acting as a tutor, however, is only one of the computer’s possible roles. The computer can be a partner for the learner to play educational games with, or, less glamorously, it can be a very efficient reference book. Or it can be used to generate examples, to illustrate certain operations, or to stimulate conversation.”

The good effect of the development of communication and information technology (IT) on language education has been broadly countenanced. Ballenden (1984) points out that computer technology will increasingly penetrate all areas of life, including education. Maddison (1983) maintains that the technology of education and the technology of the communication are two sides of the same coin. The development of information technology that has followed the development of computer technology has stimulated people especially those who work in the field of education, such as teachers, curriculum planners and media designers, to endeavor to carry out experiments and studies on the possibilities of utilizing computers for educational purposes.

Based on the explanation above, it tells us that computer is the best partner to help the teachers to teach their lesson materials, especially in teaching English grammar. The unique properties of the computer as a medium for education are its ability to interact with students (Nelson, 1980) and its flexsibility that enables students to move in whatever direction interets them and navigate through both texts and graphical information (Smith, 1988 : 33-40), as well as video clip with the choice of live sound or narration on the topic they choose (Ahmad, 1985:2-3). Moreover, the computer can be utilized to enhance language learning, and can also be used to generate examples to illustrate certain operations or to stimulate conversation (Kenning, 1984). This integrated combination of features can help students with clear explanations and descriptions, as well as illustrations.

It is not easy being a teacher because it has double functions. Furthermore, She or He is not only being an educator but also being a motivator for his or her students. The most important thing of considerations of being a teacher is that he or she has to motivate and encourage students in learning the lesson materials. That’s why the teacher must make the lesson interestingly to the students.

As we know, English has four fundamental skills, and they are reading, writing, listening and speaking. Moreover, the most difficult thing to be taught is reading because in reading lesson is included the grammar focus lessons such us tenses, gerund, passive voice, clauses and sentence structures which is more complicated to be understood by the students. To make it easier to be taught, the teachers must have interesting multimedia or tools when they want to teach their students. For examples, when the teachers want to teach about part of speech, they will use the computer which has been programmed interestingly and easier to be studied by the students. Perhaps, they will use some pictures, video clip, or instruments which are directed to the lesson materials itself.

Besides using the CALL program for teaching grammar lesson, actually, the teachers can make or create their own CALL using the PowerPoint program. They can write or create the more specific explanation and information about grammar lesson with many clip arts, pictures, written text, and even using the native sound of how to spell the things, verbs, nouns, adjectives and the others words correctly.

In the additional, we have also known that the utilization of CALL (computer assisted language learning) can motivate the students in learning English grammar, and it is easier the teaching and learning process in the class. Teachers do not have to bring a lot of compulsory and supplementary books because they just can save the lesson materials in flash disk or CD, and just plug those kinds of saving materials in the computer; moreover, they can do their teaching responsibilities without encountering the obstacles during the class.

b. Determining and Selecting Grammar Lesson Materials

Being an English teacher, we must be smart when determining, choosing and selecting the software of lesson materials for our students in order to make them feel comfortable and to help them in learning English grammar easlily. Determining the program’s objectives should be done prior to other step. Russel (1992:775) states that “it is important to identify the purpose – objective – the materials are intended to serve”. This due to the fact that the objective will normally function as a guide to the nature of the structure of the program and it thus crucial to the design of the whole project. As the name implies, the self – access computer- assisted language learning program aims to provide a self – access learning that can utilized by learners of English, such us to improve their proficiency in English grammar if language rules are highlighted. This is accordance with the current trends in the teaching of second and foreign language in which the mastery of grammar is still considered to be essentials in the era of the communicative method. As has been elaborated in previous chapters, instruction in grammar has a significant role in fostering communicative skills. Beside grammar, the CALL program may also be designed to improve other language skills and components (Hartoyo, 2005).

There are a lot of CALL program that can be used by the teachers such us we can browse those kinds of English grammar lesson materials form the internet, or we can buy it from the educational official places. Furthermore, there are several kinds of computer – based in language learning such as drill and practice, games, tutorials, simulations, problem solving, and demonstration. Among these types of CALL programs, a tutorials type of the self –access computer – mediated language learning program has been more selected and preferred. According to Criswell (1989:9) points out that there are two types of tutorials : “linear” and “branching”. She further states:

(A) Linear Program presents every frame to every student. The presentation is much like a text book, often heavily word oriented. Linear program may be paced by the student and may include interesting graphics. The amount of instruction presented is the same for every student, but the time taken to complete a program varies from student to student. … Unlike a textbook, a linear program presents information in carefully sequenced small bits, and the student is queried about each bit. The student cannot alter the forward progression of the program, except to pace it.

On the other hand, branching programs permit interaction with parts of the program without requiring formal completion of all prior elements in the program; this is an improvement over linear programs because of the greater control it gives to learners in the sense that students may start to learn any topic without necessarily following  particular learning sequence (Hartoyo, 2005).

According to Criswell (1989:9) highlights some characteristic of branching programs as follows:

Branching Program include pre-tests of major sections in the program. The program computes the student score and advises the student to either skip over or complete the section. In addition, branching programs often include review sequences that the student can select as needed. … Availability of several view sequences is quite helpful to students and decreases the likelihood that the student will give up and call for assistance from a teacher. The type of feedback given to students in branching programs ranges from simple (such as “correct”) to more elaborate (such as “You forgot to carry the 1. Please try again”).

The program may be develop primarily for the purpose of providing a self – access computer – assisted language learning program for improving English proficiency, like that one develop by Hartoyo (1998). Hartoyo’s CALL tutorial program is intended to assist students in learning EFL, especially grammar, in their spare time without reducing their classroom contact for other subjects.

This program is similar to the branching tutorial type described by Criswell. However, there are some improvements that were undertaken to make the program more interesting, flexible, interactive, and handy to use (Hartoyo, 2005).

The material covered in the program developed by Hartoyo (1998) consists of the grammatical structures which are considered to be the main problems for Indonesian learners of English. In this respect, five problematic aspects of grammar are nouns (plural noun inflections), articles (definite and indefinite articles), subject – verb agreement (subjects which require a singular verb, subjects which require plural verb), tenses, and conjunctions. These aspects are selected as they are considered to be difficult aspects of English grammar for Indonesian learners (see e.g., the results of a research reported by Commonwealth Department of education, Australian Government, 1984). Materials were compiled and justified through discussions and consolations with supervisors, English teachers and other English native speakers. In compiling the materials, some recommended English grammar books were used as well as information and suggestions obtained from English native speakers (Hartoyo, 2005).

We can choose and use the CALL program which is developed by Hartoyo, and the learning tasks were given in the type of shape of exercises set which are followed by the materials presentation section, and learners were asked to practice doing them. The one of the most common used of CALL programs which is created and developed by Hartoyo is Toolbook 3.0; it is an authoring system running under windows, and there are three important reasons why this Toolbook 3.0 is more interesting and easier to be used. First, Toolbook 3.0 is a hypermedia system. Therefore, it is appropriate for designing tutorial programs as it enables users / students to explore and read material or any information which attracts their own interest; it is not necessary for them to open the first chunk of information (node) sequentially. In other words, Toolbook is expansive and flexible in its ability to provide access to text, pictures, and other media. Second, as  hypermedia software, Toolbook is supported by text, graphics and visual illustrations, and it can be also be combined with audio as well as video. Therefore, Toolbook has the potential ability create an interactive tutorial program. Third, last but not least, as Toolbook in mainly run on PCs (IBM) carried out and, more importantly, in Indonesian where such a program is intended to be developed (Hartoyo, 2005).

c. The Advantages and The Disadvantages of Using CALL in Teaching and Learning English Grammar

According to Hartoyo (Individual Differences, 2005), there are some advantages and disadvantages of using CALL.

1).  The Advantages

  • As far as reading habits are concerned, CALL encourages users (students) to develop a non sequential reading habit, which it is hoped will carry over to reading tasks with traditional, printed material. (Ansel, et all, 1992). It allows users to make their own decisions to develop a selective and critical habit which enables them to scan a large amount of information (topic) of their interest.
  • CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic of information available within the package. The table of contents denotes all topics available which can be selected by simply clicking on the box labeled for a particular topic.
  • Since the CALL tutorial package can also be used in pairs, it spurs the user (student) to be able to collaborate very usefully in problem solving which in itself is considered in a wide range of different contexts.
  • CALL’s flexibility of time allows the students to determine what particular topics and how long he wants to learn.

2). The Disadvantages

  • Compared with “traditional” books, the “electric” book – the CAL program – is considered to be much less handy. It is much different from traditional books that are small enough to be carried around and studied wherever and whenever students wish, on the train, at home, in the middle of the night, or in the dentist’s waiting room. (Ansel, et al, 1992). Moreover, at the present time most students do not posses their own computers at home. Hence, they usually can only used computers available in their schools in which the opening hours are very restricted.
  • In general, reading a text, especially the long ones, on the screen is slower, more difficult and tiring. Gould and Grischowsky (1984) have shown that people read 20 – 30 % slower from low resolution screens. It may, sometimes, account for the eye irritation and pain. Therefore, those who are concerned with the design and programming of CAL should take into account the use of high resolution screens, and should refer to the Display Screen Equipment (DSE) regulation (e.g. in the U.K. : The Health and Safety (DSE) Regulation 1992).
  • Viewing from the financial point, CAL is costly enough for the programmer or teacher, let alone students. A lot of funds have to be provided to purchase equipment, design, programs, and for the maintained.

To conclude, the most important thing is that we, as the teacher and the learner, must be diligent enough to motivate and encourage ourselves and our students to be more sophisticated and never be lazy to improve and develop our horizons and our students’ knowledge about English with the utilization of ICT in teaching and learning process. Furthermore, actually, teaching and learning English with ICT is easier to be used and done by the people who understand well about ICT program, but for the people who are not accustomed to use ICT, they will encounter some obstacles or temptations when operating or using it. That’s why every teacher or student must be accustomed to use ICT started from themselves to improve their ability in operating the computer in order to help them in teaching and learning process.

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My Profile

I would like to introduce my self hehehehe……

My name is Tities Harjanti, and I am 26 years old now. I was born in Jakarta April, 24th 1983. I have three siblings, and they are two brothers and one sister.

I have been an English teacher for 5 years in Several Health Science Institute. Furthermore, I am happy enough being a lecturer.

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